A table full of cocktail glasses and cocktails

What is a Hangover?

If you’ve ever woken up after a night of revelry with a pounding headache, a queasy stomach, and the feeling that your brain is operating at half-speed, you’re no stranger to the dreaded hangover. But what causes this unpleasant phenomenon, and how can you prevent or treat it? In this article, we’ll delve into the science behind hangovers, exploring their causes and effects, and providing practical advice for reducing your risk and easing your symptoms. So, let’s raise a glass (of water) to understand hangovers!

Causes of Hangovers

Alcohol Metabolism

When you enjoy a cocktail, beer, or glass of wine, your body works hard to break down the alcohol (ethanol) you’ve consumed. The liver is the star of this show, using enzymes like alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to convert ethanol into harmless substances like water and carbon dioxide[1]. However, the road to detoxification is paved with a few potholes. Enter acetaldehyde: a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism that’s up to 30 times more toxic than ethanol itself[2]. Acetaldehyde can cause facial flushing, rapid heartbeat, and nausea – all familiar hangover symptoms.


Alcohol can be sneaky. While it might initially quench your thirst, it’s actually a diuretic that increases urine production, leading to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. This, in turn, can cause headaches, dizziness, and a dry mouth. And let’s not forget the frequent bathroom trips that disrupt your night’s sleep (more on that later).


Another factor that contributes to the dreaded hangover is inflammation. Alcohol consumption can lead to oxidative stress, where an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants causes cellular damage[3]. In response, your body mounts an inflammatory response, releasing molecules called cytokines. While cytokines play a crucial role in fighting infections, they can also cause fever, fatigue, and headaches.

Sleep Disruption

Ah, sleep – the underrated hero of our daily lives. We all know that a good night’s rest is crucial for feeling refreshed and alert, but alcohol can throw a wrench into our sleep cycle. Although alcohol might help you fall asleep initially, it can reduce the quality of your sleep and affect your rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep is essential for memory consolidation and emotional regulation, which explains why you might wake up feeling groggy and emotionally fragile after a night of drinking[4].

Effects of Hangovers

Physical Symptoms

Headaches: The dreaded hangover headache can be attributed to several factors, including dehydration, inflammation, and changes in blood flow. Alcohol-induced vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) can lead to headaches, as can the release of inflammatory substances like prostaglandins[5].

Nausea: The queasy feeling that often accompanies a hangover can result from several factors, including alcohol’s toxic effects on the stomach lining, delayed stomach emptying, and the production of stomach acid. Additionally, the liver’s efforts to break down alcohol can lead to a buildup of toxins, further contributing to nausea.

Cognitive Impacts

Memory Loss: As mentioned earlier, alcohol can disrupt REM sleep, which plays a crucial role in memory consolidation[6]. Combine this with the direct effects of alcohol on your brain, and it’s no wonder that you might struggle to remember the events of the previous night. In extreme cases, heavy alcohol consumption can lead to “blackouts,” where large chunks of time are completely erased from your memory.

Reduced Attention: Hangovers can make it difficult to concentrate and pay attention, whether it’s to a conversation, your work, or even your favorite TV show. Studies have shown that hangovers can significantly impair cognitive performance, including attention, reaction time, and mental flexibility[7]. In other words, you’re not imagining it – your brain really is in a fog when you’re hungover.

Prevention Strategies


Pre-Drinking Hydration: Staying hydrated is crucial in preventing hangovers. Before you start drinking, make sure to drink plenty of water. This will not only help counteract the dehydrating effects of alcohol but also provide a foundation for maintaining proper hydration throughout the night[8].

Hydration During and After Drinking: While you’re enjoying your beverages, try to alternate between alcoholic drinks and water. This will help keep you hydrated and slow down your alcohol consumption. After your night out, drink a glass of water or an electrolyte-rich beverage before going to bed to replenish lost fluids and reduce the risk of a hangover.

Food Intake

Eating Before Drinking: Consuming food before you start drinking can help slow down the absorption of alcohol into your bloodstream, reducing the intensity of your hangover. Opt for nutrient-dense meals containing healthy fats, lean proteins, and complex carbohydrates, which can help stabilize your blood sugar levels and provide a slow, steady release of energy throughout the night.

Snacking While Drinking: Munching on small, healthy snacks while you’re out can help keep your stomach full, slowing down alcohol absorption and providing essential nutrients to help your body combat the effects of alcohol. Choose snacks like nuts, whole-grain crackers, or even a piece of fruit to keep you going.

Pacing Your Drinks

Setting Drink Limits: Knowing your limits and pacing your alcohol consumption can go a long way in preventing hangovers. Set a drink limit for yourself before you go out, and stick to it. Keep in mind that the general recommendation is no more than one standard drink per hour for women and two for men, though individual tolerances may vary[9].

Slowing Down Consumption: Practice mindful drinking by sipping slowly and savoring the taste of your drink. This not only enhances your enjoyment of the beverage but also gives your body more time to metabolize the alcohol, reducing the risk of a hangover.

Recovery Methods

Rehydration Solutions

Sports Drinks vs. Oral Rehydration Salts: When it comes to rehydrating after a hangover, sports drinks and oral rehydration salts (ORS) can both be effective options. Sports drinks usually contain electrolytes and sugars that help replenish lost fluids and minerals. On the other hand, ORS is formulated specifically to combat dehydration and contain a more precise balance of electrolytes and glucose. While both options can help, ORS may be more effective in severe cases of dehydration[10].

Coconut Water and Other Natural Options: Coconut water is another popular option for hangover recovery, as it is a natural source of electrolytes like potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Additionally, other natural beverages like watermelon juice or even a simple banana smoothie can provide a boost of electrolytes and nutrients to help you bounce back from a hangover.

Pain Relief Medications

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen can help alleviate headaches and other aches associated with hangovers. Keep in mind that it’s essential to follow the recommended dosage and avoid taking these medications on an empty stomach.

Rest and Sleep

Catching Up on Sleep: More sleep goes a long way when you’re having a hangover. Alcohol may have disrupted your sleep quality and REM sleep, so taking a nap or ensuring you get a good night’s sleep following a hangover can help reduce fatigue and improve cognitive function[6].

Creating a Sleep-Friendly Environment: To maximize the quality of your sleep, make sure your sleep environment is quiet, dark, and cool. Also, avoid screen time before bed, as the blue light emitted by electronic devices can interfere with your natural sleep patterns. Friendly tip: Get blackout curtains to ensure maximum darkness!

Nutrient-Rich Foods and Supplements

Replenishing Nutrients: Consuming nutrient-dense foods can help support your body’s recovery from a hangover. Foods rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants can help combat inflammation and replenish lost nutrients. Examples include leafy greens, lean proteins, whole grains, and antioxidant-rich fruits like berries.

Supplements: Some people may turn to supplements to help alleviate hangover symptoms, but try to prioritize obtaining nutrients through a balanced diet whenever possible.

Gentle Exercise

Light Physical Activity: Engaging in gentle exercises, such as taking a walk, doing yoga, or stretching, can help alleviate some hangover symptoms. Exercise increases blood circulation, which can help to remove toxins from your system more quickly. Additionally, it releases endorphins, the body’s natural “feel-good” chemicals, that can improve your mood and reduce stress[11].

Exercise Caution: While mild exercise can be beneficial, it’s essential not to overdo it. Intense exercise could exacerbate dehydration and fatigue, making your hangover symptoms worse. Listen to your body and stick to low-intensity activities until you feel fully recovered.

Social Support and Self-Care

Reach Out to Friends: Sharing your hangover experience with friends can provide a sense of camaraderie and emotional support. Laughter and lighthearted conversations can help take your mind off your symptoms and improve your mood.

Prioritize Self-Care: Remember that recovering from a hangover is a process, and it’s essential to be kind to yourself during this time. Practice self-care by engaging in relaxing activities like taking a warm bath, meditating, or watching your favorite movie. Being gentle with yourself can help you feel better, both physically and emotionally.

In conclusion, hangovers are a complex interplay of factors, including alcohol metabolism, dehydration, inflammation, and sleep disruption. Understanding the science behind hangovers can help you take steps to prevent them and manage their effects. By staying hydrated, pacing your drinks, and prioritizing self-care, you can reduce your risk of experiencing hangovers and minimize their impact when they do occur. As always, it’s important to drink responsibly and in moderation to protect your overall health and well-being.

Tips and Resources

Smartphone Apps

Hangover Prevention Apps: Several smartphone apps can help track your alcohol consumption and remind you to drink water or eat snacks throughout the night. Apps like AlcoDroid, DrinkControl, and DrinkTracker can be useful tools for managing your drinking habits and reducing the risk of hangovers.

Relaxation and Sleep Apps: To improve your sleep quality and promote relaxation during your hangover recovery, consider trying apps like CalmHeadspace, or Sleep Cycle. These apps offer guided meditations, sleep stories, and other features designed to help you unwind and sleep better.

Online Resources

Responsible Drinking Guidelines: For more information on responsible drinking and understanding your limits, visit the websites of organizations like the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Hangover Prevention and Recovery Tips: Websites like HealthlineWebMD, and the Mayo Clinic offer a wealth of information on hangover prevention and recovery strategies, backed by scientific research and expert opinions.


Understanding the science behind hangovers can empower you to make informed decisions about your alcohol consumption and implement effective prevention and recovery strategies. By staying hydrated, pacing your drinks, eating nutrient-dense meals, and practicing self-care, you can minimize the risk and impact of hangovers. Utilize available tips, resources, and smartphone apps to further support your efforts in maintaining responsible drinking habits and safeguarding your overall health and well-being. Remember, moderation is key, and seeking guidance from healthcare professionals is always recommended if you have concerns about alcohol consumption or hangover symptoms.


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[2] Zakhari, Samir. “Overview: how is alcohol metabolized by the body?.” Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism vol. 29,4 (2006): 245-54.

[3] Wu, Defeng, and Arthur I Cederbaum. “Alcohol, oxidative stress, and free radical damage.” Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism vol. 27,4 (2003): 277-84.

[4] Roehrs, T, and T Roth. “Sleep, sleepiness, and alcohol use.” Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism vol. 25,2 (2001): 101-9.

[5] Panconesi, A. Alcohol and migraine: trigger factor, consumption, mechanisms. A review. J Headache Pain 9, 19–27 (2008).

[6] Ebrahim, Irshaad O et al. “Alcohol and sleep I: effects on normal sleep.” Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research vol. 37,4 (2013): 539-49. doi:10.1111/acer.12006

[7] Swift, R, and D Davidson. “Alcohol hangover: mechanisms and mediators.” Alcohol health and research world vol. 22,1 (1998): 54-60.

[8] Ruth M. Hobson, Ronald J. Maughan, Hydration Status and the Diuretic Action of a Small Dose of Alcohol, Alcohol and Alcoholism, Volume 45, Issue 4, July-August 2010, Pages 366–373,

[9] National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Drinking levels defined. NIAAA. Available from:

[10] Wiese, J G et al. “The alcohol hangover.” Annals of internal medicine vol. 132,11 (2000): 897-902. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-11-200006060-00008

[11] Leasure, J Leigh et al. “Exercise and Alcohol Consumption: What We Know, What We Need to Know, and Why it is Important.” Frontiers in psychiatry vol. 6 156. 2 Nov. 2015, doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00156

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